Pope Benedict XVI on the Importance of St. Thomas Aquinas June 16, 2010

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Dear Brothers and Sisters,

Today I would like to continue the presentation of St Thomas Aquinas, a theologian of such value that the study of his thought was explicitly recommended by the Second Vatican Council in two documents, the Decree Optatam totius on the Training of Priests, and the Declaration Gravissimum Educationis, which addresses Christian Education. Indeed, already in 1880 Pope Leo XIII, who held St Thomas in high esteem as a guide and encouraged Thomistic studies, chose to declare him Patron of Catholic Schools and Universities.

The main reason for this appreciation is not only explained by the content of his teaching but also by the method he used, especially his new synthesis and distinction between philosophy and theology. The Fathers of the Church were confronted by different philosophies of a Platonic type in which a complete vision of the world and of life was presented, including the subject of God and of religion. In comparison with these philosophies they themselves had worked out a complete vision of reality, starting with faith and using elements of Platonism to respond to the essential questions of men and women. They called this vision, based on biblical revelation and formulated with a correct Platonism in the light of faith: “our philosophy”. The word “philosophy” was not, therefore, an expression of a purely rational system and, as such, distinct from faith but rather indicated a comprehensive vision of reality, constructed in the light of faith but used and conceived of by reason; a vision that naturally exceeded the capacities proper to reason but as such also fulfilled it. For St Thomas the encounter with the pre-Christian philosophy of Aristotle (who died in about 322 b.c.) opened up a new perspective. Aristotelian philosophy was obviously a philosophy worked out without the knowledge of the Old and New Testaments, an explanation of the world without revelation through reason alone. And this consequent rationality was convincing. Thus the old form of the Fathers’ “our philosophy” no longer worked. The relationship between philosophy and theology, between faith and reason, needed to be rethought. A “philosophy” existed that was complete and convincing in itself, a rationality that preceded the faith, followed by “theology”, a form of thinking with the faith and in the faith. The pressing question was this: are the world of rationality, philosophy conceived of without Christ, and the world of faith compatible? Or are they mutually exclusive? Elements that affirmed the incompatibility of these two worlds were not lacking, but St Thomas was firmly convinced of their compatibility indeed that philosophy worked out without the knowledge of Christ was awaiting, as it were, the light of Jesus to be complete. This was the great “surprise” of St Thomas that determined the path he took as a thinker. Showing this independence of philosophy and theology and, at the same time, their reciprocal relationality was the historic mission of the great teacher. And thus it can be understood that in the 19th century, when the incompatibility of modern reason and faith was strongly declared, Pope Leo XIII pointed to St Thomas as a guide in the dialogue between them. In his theological work, St Thomas supposes and concretizes this relationality. Faith consolidates, integrates and illumines the heritage of truth that human reason acquires. The trust with which St Thomas endows these two instruments of knowledge faith and reason may be traced back to the conviction that both stem from the one source of all truth, the divine Logos, which is active in both contexts, that of Creation and that of redemption.

Together with the agreement between reason and faith, we must recognize on the other hand that they avail themselves of different cognitive procedures. Reason receives a truth by virtue of its intrinsic evidence, mediated or unmediated; faith, on the contrary, accepts a truth on the basis of the authority of the Word of God that is revealed. St Thomas writes at the beginning of his Summa Theologiae: “We must bear in mind that there are two kinds of sciences. There are some which proceed from a principle known by the natural light of the intelligence, such as arithmetic and geometry and the like. There are some which proceed from principles known by the light of a higher science: thus the science of perspective proceeds from principles established by geometry, and music from principles established by arithmetic. So it is that sacred doctrine is a science, because it proceeds from principles established by the light of a higher science, namely, the science of God and the blessed” (ia, q. 1, a.2).

This distinction guarantees the autonomy of both the human and the theological sciences. However, it is not equivalent to separation but, rather, implies a reciprocal and advantageous collaboration. Faith, in fact, protects reason from any temptation to distrust its own abilities, stimulates it to be open to ever broader horizons, keeps alive in it the search for foundations and, when reason itself is applied to the supernatural sphere of the relationship between God and man, faith enriches his work. According to St Thomas, for example, human reason can certainly reach the affirmation of the existence of one God, but only faith, which receives the divine Revelation, is able to draw from the mystery of the Love of the Triune God.

Moreover, it is not only faith that helps reason. Reason too, with its own means can do something important for faith, making it a threefold service which St Thomas sums up in the preface to his commentary on the De Trinitate of Boethius: “demonstrating those truths that are preambles of the faith; giving a clearer notion, by certain similitudes, of the truths of the faith; resisting those who speak against the faith, either by showing that their statements are false, or by showing that they are not necessarily true” (q. 2, a.3). The entire history of theology is basically the exercise of this task of the mind which shows the intelligibility of faith, its articulation and inner harmony, its reasonableness and its ability to further human good. The correctness of theological reasoning and its real cognitive meaning is based on the value of theological language which, in St Thomas’ opinion, is principally an analogical language. The distance between God, the Creator, and the being of his creatures is infinite; dissimilitude is ever greater than similitude (cf. DS 806). Nevertheless in the whole difference between Creator and creatures an analogy exists between the created being and the being of the Creator, which enables us to speak about God with human words.

St Thomas not only based the doctrine of analogy on exquisitely philosophical argumentation but also on the fact that with the Revelation God himself spoke to us and therefore authorized us to speak of him. I consider it important to recall this doctrine. In fact, it helps us get the better of certain objections of contemporary atheism which denies that religious language is provided with an objective meaning and instead maintains that it has solely a subjective or merely emotional value. This objection derives from the fact that positivist thought is convinced that man does not know being but solely the functions of reality that can be experienced. With St Thomas and with the great philosophical tradition we are convinced that, in reality, man does not only know the functions, the object of the natural sciences, but also knows something of being itself for example, he knows the person, the You of the other, and not only the physical and biological aspect of his being.

In the light of this teaching of St Thomas theology says that however limited it may be, religious language is endowed with sense because we touch being like an arrow aimed at the reality it signifies. This fundamental agreement between human reason and Christian faith is recognized in another basic principle of Aquinas’ thought. Divine Grace does not annihilate but presupposes and perfects human nature. The latter, in fact, even after sin, is not completely corrupt but wounded and weakened. Grace, lavished upon us by God and communicated through the Mystery of the Incarnate Word, is an absolutely free gift with which nature is healed, strengthened and assisted in pursuing the innate desire for happiness in the heart of every man and of every woman. All the faculties of the human being are purified, transformed and uplifted by divine Grace.

An important application of this relationship between nature and Grace is recognized in the moral theology of St Thomas Aquinas, which proves to be of great timeliness. At the centre of his teaching in this field, he places the new law which is the law of the Holy Spirit. With a profoundly evangelical gaze he insists on the fact that this law is the Grace of the Holy Spirit given to all who believe in Christ. The written and oral teaching of the doctrinal and moral truths transmitted by the Church is united to this Grace. St Thomas, emphasizing the fundamental role in moral life of the action of the Holy Spirit, of Grace, from which flow the theological and moral virtues, makes us understand that all Christians can attain the lofty perspectives of the “Sermon on the Mount”, if they live an authentic relationship of faith in Christ, if they are open to the action of his Holy Spirit. However, Aquinas adds, “Although Grace is more efficacious than nature, yet nature is more essential to man, and therefore more enduring” (Summa Theologiae, Ia-IIae, q. 94, a. 6, ad 2), which is why, in the Christian moral perspective, there is a place for reason which is capable of discerning natural moral law. Reason can recognize this by considering what it is good to do and what it is good to avoid in order to achieve that felicity which everyone has at heart, which also implies a responsibility towards others and, therefore, the search for the common good. In other words, the human, theological and moral virtues are rooted in human nature. Divine Grace accompanies, sustains and impels ethical commitment but, according to St Thomas, all human beings, believers and non-believers alike, are called to recognize the needs of human nature expressed in natural law and to draw inspiration from it in the formulation of positive laws, namely those issued by the civil and political authorities to regulate human coexistence.

When natural law and the responsibility it entails are denied this dramatically paves the way to ethical relativism at the individual level and to totalitarianism of the State at the political level. The defence of universal human rights and the affirmation of the absolute value of the person’s dignity postulate a foundation. Does not natural law constitute this foundation, with the non-negotiable values that it indicates? Venerable John Paul II wrote in his Encyclical Evangelium Vitae words that are still very up to date: “It is therefore urgently necessary, for the future of society and the development of a sound democracy, to rediscover those essential and innate human and moral values which flow from the very truth of the human being and express and safeguard the dignity of the person: values which no individual, no majority and no State can ever create, modify or destroy, but must only acknowledge, respect and promote” (n. 71).

To conclude, Thomas presents to us a broad and confident concept of human reason: broad because it is not limited to the spaces of the so-called “empirical-scientific” reason, but open to the whole being and thus also to the fundamental and inalienable questions of human life; and confident because human reason, especially if it accepts the inspirations of Christian faith, is a promoter of a civilization that recognizes the dignity of the person, the intangibility of his rights and the cogency of his or her duties. It is not surprising that the doctrine on the dignity of the person, fundamental for the recognition of the inviolability of human rights, developed in schools of thought that accepted the legacy of St Thomas Aquinas, who had a very lofty conception of the human creature. He defined it, with his rigorously philosophical language, as “what is most perfect to be found in all nature – that is, a subsistent individual of a rational nature” (Summa Theologiae, 1a, q. 29, a. 3).

The depth of St Thomas Aquinas’ thought let us never forget it flows from his living faith and fervent piety, which he expressed in inspired prayers such as this one in which he asks God: “Grant me, O Lord my God, a mind to know you, a heart to seek you, wisdom to find you, conduct pleasing to you, faithful perseverance in waiting for you, and a hope of finally embracing you”.

“Great Books, Great Friends” a Week Long Gathering of Some of Our Great Books Students in D.C.

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"Study the Past"

"Study the Past"

C-Span Interview with One of Our Students

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As always, Hunter impresses us all! To see more of Hunter’s videos, please view his channel at this link.

Angelicum Family Discounts

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“When I saw you had a second child discount, I did not even look at it because years of experience have told me that the discounts, though welcome, were usually inconsequential.  Your discount is significant, and greatly valued!  Thank you.  So, now we can buy books instead of searching on-line, at book stores, and at libraries.”  Sincerely,  Mrs. E. R.

Angelicum Academy Grades 1-12 Enrollment Discount

LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program Discount

For more information on our enrollment discounts, please email Dr. Elisabeth Carmack at AngelicumMailbox@aol.com.

All Twitter, No Twain by Diane Ravitch

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A huge thank you to Diane Ravitch for this thoughtful article!  ~  Angelicum

Americans may be reading online, but that’s not literature. Without the great authors, where are the great thoughts? Five years ago, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) issued an alarming report called Reading at Risk, which declared that literary reading was in dramatic decline. The NEA reported a sharp drop from 1982 to 2002 in the proportion of people who were reading any kind of literature. Fewer than half of adults, the NEA said, had read any single work of literature during 2003, the previous year. Dana Gioia, then the chairman of the NEA, called the decline of literary reading a national crisis that represented a “general collapse in advanced literacy.”

Early this year, however, the NEA reversed course. It said the latest figures showed a turnaround: for the first time since 1982, the proportion of adults who had read at least one novel, short story, poem, or play in the previous year had risen.

The number was still lower than it had been in 1982 or 1992, but Gioia concluded that the downward spiral seemed to have ended. He attributed the happy reversal to an NEA program called The Big Read, which encourages entire communities to read and discuss one particular book, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Great Gatsby, Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God, Mark Twain’s Adventures of Tom Sawyer, or Henry James’s Washington Square.

Not long ago, visiting a town in Wyoming where many people were reading the same book, I could see that The Big Read was a wonderful idea. Everyone was discussing the book. I thought wistfully of the many times I had argued with state education bureaucrats who staunchly opposed the idea of specifying a good book for students to read in any particular grade. In these dark days for the publishing industry, which has suffered along with the rest of the economy, any good news is welcome. And yet it is hard to be cheerful when so many signs suggest that the increase in reading springs not from a newfound love of literature but from a devotion to trivial stuff online. Indeed, some critics of Reading at Risk contend that reading is not in trouble because young people are reading material on the Internet. Yes, but what are they reading? It is not likely to be Mark Twain or William Faulkner or Walt Whitman or Ralph Ellison, but rather Facebook, MySpace, or Twitter. Text messaging is also a form of reading, but it is not going to keep the higher end of literary culture alive.

There are other troubling signs of the decay of literary culture. The Washington Post has shut down Book World, its book review section. The New York Times Sunday Book Review is probably the last such freestanding section left among the nation’s newspapers the (Times eliminated its daily book reviews several years ago).

Few genuine outlets now exist for reviewing books, which is bad news for authors, many of whom work for years writing a book and getting it published but then get no reviews. Books that are not reviewed have a hard time finding an audience. The publication of the book is like a tree falling in the forest: If no one heard it, did it fall? If no one reviews a book, how will readers know that it exists? The New York Times book section may also be at risk. It is no secret that the Times, struggling with a large debt, is cutting back sections of the newspaper. One recent week, the Sunday Book Review was a slender twenty-four pages and contained scant advertising. How long can it survive under such circumstances? Writers whose books can change the way you see the world are not on Americans’ “must read” lists.

Most people never read these works, which tend not to become blockbuster computer-generated movies. Even more ominous was the list emerging from “Ten Books to Read before You Die,” a feature that appeared on America Online not long ago. It grew out of a Harris poll that asked people to identify their favorite books. Aside from the Bible, the rest of the list reflected popular culture: The Lord of the Rings, surely on the list because of the wildly popular movies (I wonder how many of those who named this series had read any of them?), and the Harry Potter series, about which nothing more needs to be said (except that Harry Potter is seven books, not one). Add to those two by Dan Brown, including The Da Vinci Code (I would be willing to die with no regrets at all if I had never read that book); a book by Stephen King, a master of popular fiction; and Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, presumably because lots of people have seen the movie on television. All that remains to round out the list of the books one must read before dying are Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged and two staples of the high school curriculum, Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird and J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye.

One wishes that the Harris poll ad asked people if they had read the book or merely watched the movie. This list is the ultimate confirmation of the dumbing down of America. If these are the ten books one must read before dying, count me out. Why nothing by Mark Twain, whose novels, I believe, are certainly superior to anything on the Harris poll list? Why no mention of Shakespeare or Tolstoy? Why no George Eliot? Why no Ralph Ellison or Richard Wright? Those writers, whose works can change the way you see the world, are not on the list because most Americans have never read them and because their writings have never been converted into a major computer-generated movie.

The publication of the book is like a tree falling in the forest: If no one heard it, did it fall? If no one reviews a book, how will readers know that it exists? Why does it matter if America’s literary culture is dying? It matters because the ability to read challenging books helps make one more independent-minded. It encourages a way of thinking that is not a product of the mass media. It gives one the ability to think for oneself and entertain contrary opinions, and the freedom from dependence on Hollywood for a view of the world. The literary culture is the last bastion of the individualist. Our society, our culture, even our economy depend on preserving freethinking dissidents. And there is nothing that works better to free a mind from cant and superstition than to engage with the ideas of the world’s greatest writers.

The literary culture is the last bastion of the individualist. Our society, our culture, even our economy depend on preserving free-thinking dissidents. And there is nothing that works better to free a mind from cant and superstition than to engage with the ideas of the world’s greatest writers.   —Diane Ravitch

Father Fessio Launches Educational Effort

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Jesuit Father Joseph Fessio is founder and editor in chief of Ignatius Press, which has published 25 books by then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. The priest has spent decades publishing in English work by the 78-year-old German cardinal that was written bef ore he became pope April 19. Father Fessio said Pope Benedict XVI will disappoint only those Catholics who want changes that disrupt the integrity of the Catholic faith.

Jesuit Father Joseph Fessio is founder and editor in chief of Ignatius Press, which has published 25 books by then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. The priest has spent decades publishing in English work by the 78-year-old German cardinal that was written bef ore he became pope April 19. Father Fessio said Pope Benedict XVI will disappoint only those Catholics who want changes that disrupt the integrity of the Catholic faith.

A special thanks to the National Catholic Register and Mr. Anthony Flott  for this article.   Original Article

Amid what an award-winning educator calls a “sea change” in higher education, Jesuit Father Joseph Fessio is back in the captain’s chair and launching another ship.

Father Fessio, a former student of Pope Benedict XVI, previously founded the St. Ignatius Institute of the University of San Francisco, Ignatius Press and Campion College in San Francisco. Now, he has brought together Ignatius Press, Angelicum Academy, an online Catholic home-school program that provides online college credit, and Catholic colleges on three continents to establish the Ignatius-Angelicum Liberal Studies Program. A combination of home study, distance learning and online classes, the Liberal Studies Program offers a Catholic liberal education and up to two years of college credit for students 14 and older — home-schoolers, traditional high-schoolers and others.

Father Fessio, who last summer was dismissed as provost of Ave Maria University after a dispute over administration policies, will be chancellor of the new program, which begins the first week of September.

“It really addresses a need of these students and their families that really want to get a Catholic education but can’t afford to or don’t want to take on the debt,” Father Fessio said. “This is for them to solve that problem, and not just solve it, but improve on what they would do otherwise.”

The program’s cornerstone is Angelicum’s Great Books Program, a study of the great literature of Western civilization and an approach championed by philosopher, educator and Catholic convert Mortimer Adler. Study will be augmented by the Ignatius Critical Editions series and study guides providing tradition-oriented criticism of the great books.

The Liberal Studies Program comes during a tidal change in higher education, said Angelicum Academy’s president, Patrick Carmack, who in 2009 received the International Etienne Gilson Society’s Pope John Paul the Great Thomist Humanist Award for his work in education.

“Most people that I’ve spoken with are conscious of the sea change in our education toward distance education,” said Carmack, whose Angelicum is a decade-long provider of home schooling and other liberal arts resources. “And it is a sea change. It is the most rapidly growing sector of higher education, including Catholic education. That’s largely due to financial considerations.”

Common Concerns

Father Fessio and Carmack had discussed a partnership as long ago as 2007, but they didn’t begin planning the Ignatius-Angelicum Liberal Studies Program formally until last November. It addresses the rising cost of education Carmack cites, but also the dearth of great books-based education — and what Father Fessio sees as subpar Catholic colleges.

Faith comes first, they say, but financial burdens cannot be ignored. While Father Fessio recalls paying for his college room and board by working a construction job during summers, that’s just about unheard of today.

“The cost of education continues to rise so much more quickly than the cost of living,” he said.
Carmack points to government-guaranteed loans as one culprit. “Colleges responded to that by increasing tuition because they knew it would be covered by the government,” he said. The rising number of baby boomers in college also increased price by increasing demand, he added.

A Liberal Studies Program press release points to an average per-year cost of $26,273 for private college tuition and fees — more than $100,000 for four years. But online-only programs like the Liberal Studies Program are not burdened with costs for building and maintaining a physical campus, extensive staff, athletics, etc. The release notes that with a coordinated course of study through the program and its affiliates in the Universities of Western Civilization network of cooperating colleges, students can obtain a bachelor’s degree with an accredited college for as little as $26,600. The Liberal Studies Program also offers family tuition discounts — 50% for students from one family after one enrollee.

“Distance education is radically less expensive,” Carmack said.

The program’s formation also addresses academic issues. Because of the high cost of education, Father Fessio said, some students forgo education at private institutions or first attend community college for two years to satisfy general requirements.

“That’s just backwards,” Father Fessio said. “The one thing a Catholic university has to offer are the foundational liberal arts. Those first two years of a Catholic college are the most foundational.”

The Liberal Studies Program will offer the foundation of a liberal arts education by using great books to study the ancient Greeks and Romans, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, etc. Carmack said 37 colleges have great books programs but that no high school has made college credit available for it, something the Liberal Studies Program now can offer. Angelicum has been offering a great books program for 10 years, and last year had more than 100 students enrolled. Study will be augmented by Ignatius Press study guides.

Each class has two faculty members, at least one of whom has a Ph.D. Carmack said a waiting list of educators interested in joining the faculty is growing.

Father Fessio said the program also hopes to offer students in-person meetings with professors, perhaps a week to a month long.

College-level theology coursework also is in the works. Father Fessio said he has been discussing partnerships between Ignatius Press and My Catholic Faith Delivered, possibly for credit at Benedictine College in Atchison, Kan.

Currently, Liberal Study Program students can earn up to 48 hours of credit. That could expand to 60 to 64 credits with a theology component. Credits currently are accepted at Benedictine College, Campion College in Australia, St. Bede’s Hall in Oxford, England, and other colleges in the Universities of Western Civilization, a network of colleges that accept pre-college studies completed while home schooling or in high school. The American Council on Education also recommends Liberal Studies Program credit, which other universities and colleges are free to accept or reject.

Finally, the formation of the Liberal Studies Program addresses a faith component. In a press release, Father Fessio estimates that there are only about 10 “truly excellent Catholic colleges … to transfer into.”

Hoping to join that short list, the Liberal Studies Program touts its faithfulness to the teaching of the Catholic Church.

“There’s no question that it’s a Catholic program,” Carmack said. “And we’re not going to exclude non-Catholic students, of course. We hope we can reach as many people as possible.”

High Hopes

Just how many people the Liberal Studies Program will reach won’t be known until late July or August, when enrollments start to arrive, Carmack said. “We anticipate a great many more, but have no idea,” he said. “One of the benefits of distance education is you can add classes very easily.”

Father Fessio, though, said Carmack told him that interest via phone calls and Web visits is “four times or five times normally what he’d get.”

That in large measure likely is due to the marketing reach of Ignatius Press. It’s one of the reasons why Angelicum’s partnership with the publisher made sense.

“Ignatius Press is in the business of selling good products, mainly books and films,” Father Fessio said. “But we have a network of marketing and promotion and distribution, and so it worked for people here to put together the advertising.”

Carmack is hoping the payoff is profound.

“Really what we’re after primarily is an excellent Catholic great books education,” Carmack said. “Secondarily is to make it more widely available than it is and more widely affordable.”

All aboard.

Anthony Flott writes from Papillion, Nebraska.

For more information on the Liberal Studies Program and Angelicum Great Books Program, please click on the logo. 

 

Student Options with Our Liberal Studies Program

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LIBERAL STUDIES PROGRAM

STUDENT OPTIONS TO BACHELOR’S DEGREES

This page describes in detail the options of Liberal Studies Program students who complete some or all of the first part of the LSP – the Angelicum Great Books Program. At that point they have three options to pursue their bachelor’s degree with credit for their LSP studies:

• Transfer/apply to one of the Universities of Western Civilization (UOWC) colleges, programs or universities to earn more needed credits or to complete their degree (these options are detailed below); • Transfer/apply to one of the hundreds of non-UOWC colleges and universities that nevertheless routinely accept some or all ACE CREDIT Recommendations for college credit for their Angelicum Great Books Program study; • Transfer/apply to one of the many non-UOWC colleges programs or universities that accept ACE CREDIT Recommended credits on an individual basis (i.e., that accept ACE CREDIT recommendations, but do so only on an individual application basis and have no policy of accepting them without individual review.

Those colleges, programs and universities which cooperate with or are a part of the growing UOWC network of participating colleges, and how they accept and relate to the first part of the LSP – the Angelicum Great Books Program, are described below in this order (scroll down): LSP Bachelor’s Degree Cost (see details below)  Campion College Australia………….…..$ 28,088  Catholic Distance University………………30,334  Harrison Middleton University…………..28,822  St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford, UK………………….32,088  Benedictine College……………………………93,722

CAMPION COLLEGE AUSTRALIA

• Accepts all 48 hours of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program • BA Requires either three semesters (1 ½ years) on campus, Sydney, Australia, or • One semester online with Catholic Distance University followed by two semesters (1 year) on campus, Sydney, Australia • Cost is presently $ 5,880 per semester + $ 1,785 to $4,095 per semester for room and board depending on level of sharing accommodations or not. Exchange rate varies. Does not include any air fare. • Thus total costs for a bachelor’s degree through the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program, completed at Campion, would be $11,800 (AGBP) + $5,880 x 3 semesters at Campion= $17,640 + $1,428-to-$4,641 per semester room and board x 3 semesters = $4,284-to-$13,923, for a total of $33,724-to-$43,363 (depending on the room and board accommodations selected). This can be reduced to $32,396 utilizing three annual 15% reenrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

• If one semester is completed at Catholic Distance University before attending Campion, the total cost of a BA would be $11,800 (ABGP) + $3,000 CDU one semester + $11,760 tuition at Campion (two semesters) + $2,856-to-$9,282 for two semesters room and board, for a total of $29,416-to-$35,842. This can be reduced to $28,088 utilizing three annual 15% reenrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

In order to provide additional higher educational opportunities for the students of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program with Campion College Australia (CCA) the two have agreed as follows:

Campion College is a fully registered college accredited by the New South Wales Department of Education and Training to deliver higher education programmes. It is a Higher Education Provider (HEP) under the Act. The Bachelor of Arts in the Liberal Arts has been fully accredited, meaning that it is the equal of any Bachelor degree being offered in Australia and is able to used at other universities as a prerequisite to post graduate work.

Great Books Program students who successfully complete (with a “C” grade or better) part or all of said program may transfer all of such hours for full credit toward the CCA bachelor’s degree. Applications with partial completion will be assessed for articulation on an individual basis. Students completing the entire 48 hour [72 Aus.cp] Great Books Program will need an additional 48 credit hours [72 Aus.cp] to earn a bachelor’s degree in the liberal arts from CCA. The specific credit transfer specifications are attached.

Credit Transfer Specifications Campion has identified two options for students of the Angelicum Great Books Programme to complete their studies towards a Liberal arts degree (BA) at Campion College Australia. Option 1 – Three (3) Semesters at Campion College Australia Campion College Australia has identified the following 12 subjects as receiving direct credit from graduates of the Angelicum Great Books program to the Campion College Australia Bachelor of Arts in the Liberal Arts. [i.e., These courses are substantially covered in the Angelicum Great Books Program and hence need not be duplicated at Campion College Australia] HIS 101 Western Societies from antiquity to the present HIS 102 The Ancient World; Near Eastern , Hellenistic and Roman Culture HIS 202 Renaissance, reformation and Revolution; A history of Modern Times HIS 301 War, Science and Religion in the 20th century LIT 101 Composition and Literature LIT 102 Literature of Western Civilisation-Ancient LIT 201 Literature of Western Civilisation-Medieval and Renaissance LIT 202 Literature of Western Civilisation- Milton to Modern LIT 301 The Search for Meaning in 20th Century Literature PHI 101 Introduction to Philosophy PHI 202 Moral Philosophy THE 101 Theological Foundations of Christian Culture

Students may attend Campion from this point and complete the remaining courses on the program as prescribed in the Campion handbook and on the website. The total time for completion for students who choose this option is 3 semesters.

Option 2 –One (1) Semester Online with Catholic Distance University, then Two (2) Semesters at Campion College Australia

The articulation from the Great Books program will be the same for the first twelve (12) subjects as for those in Option 1.

Students who study an additional four (4) subjects at an approved US institution prior to studying at Campion College Australia may reduce their time in Australia to two semesters. Currently the following subjects have been approved if students complete four (4) subjects at the Catholic Distance University (another UOWC participating college). These four (4) subjects are:

101-0402 Divine Revelation; Scripture and Tradition according to the Vatican 11 (THE) 106-0304 Fundamentals of Catholic Doctrine (THE) 216-0101G God, Man and the Universe (PHI) 101-502.1.1 Early & Medieval Church History (HIS)

Students studying at another institution (other than CDU) would need to have their articulation approved at the time of application to Campion College.

Students choosing Option 2 would be required to complete the remaining subjects at Campion College Australia in order for students to be eligible for graduation at Campion, these are:

THE 201 Sacramental Theology THE 301 Moral Theology SCI 301 Human Biology PHI 301 Modern Philosophy

SCI 302 Science and Science and Society HIS 302 Australian Politics, Culture and Religion since 1788 LIT 302 Australian Literature PHI 102 Metaphysics

CATHOLIC DISTANCE UNIVERSITY

• An online, accredited, Catholic university • Accepts all 48 hours of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program • Students completing the entire 48 hour Angelicum Great Books Program will only need an additional 42 general education credits (which may be taken at any accredited institution, including Harrison Middleton University online [below]), in addition to 36 credits in theology, to earn the CDU bachelor’s degree in theology. • Cost is presently $239 per undergraduate hour plus about $5 per hour in fees for a total of right at $250 per credit hour. • A student who first completed the 48 credit hour Angelicum Great Books Program ($11,800), then completed 42 general education credits ($10,850) at Harrison Middleton University (a UOWC member); and concluded their degree at CDU with 36 credits in theology ($9,012), for the126 hour degree total would have paid $31,662. This can be reduced to $30,334 utilizing three annual 15% re-enrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

Catholic Distance University has been accredited by the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC). In order to provide additional higher educational opportunities for the students of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program with Catholic Distance University, the two have agreed as follows: that Angelicum Great Books Program students who successfully complete (with a “C” grade or better) part or all of said program may receive full credit for such hours toward the CDU Bachelor of Arts degree in theology, or other CDU degree program, as general education credits.

The CDU theology degree helps students expand their knowledge of the Catholic faith and develop the skills needed to demonstrate competency in explaining the essential teachings of the Catholic Church using Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition and Magisterial documents, with emphasis on the Catechism of the Catholic Church and the Documents of Vatican II.

Pursuant to CDU programs, Angelicum Great Books Program students would have the following options: 1.) CDU offers a degree completion program for the Bachelor of Arts degree in theology designed for students who have not yet earned a bachelor’s degree, but who have earned a minimum of 90 undergraduate credits (including general education requirements.) Once accepted into CDU’s program, they earn 36 additional credits in theology enabling them to graduate with an accredited BA degree in theology. Students with Angelicum Great Books Program credits and additional credits from accredited institutions, totaling 90 undergraduate credits would need to earn 36 additional credits in theology enabling them to graduate with an accredited CDU BA degree in theology. 2.) CDU allows students to work on their general education credits and theology credits at the same time. Students with 60 general education credits are accepted into the CDU program as provisional students with full acceptance granted when all 90 general requirement credits are earned. Students with WCF Great Books Program credits and additional credits from accredited institutions, totaling 60 undergraduate credits may be accepted into the CDU program as provisional students with full acceptance granted when all 90 general requirement credits are earned. They would need to earn 36 credits in theology enabling them to graduate with an accredited CDU BA degree in theology. 3.) CDU offers the option of taking undergraduate and graduate courses without applying to one of the CDU academic programs. There is no application required to take a course at CDU. A copy of a high school diploma or college level transcript is required for undergraduate courses and a copy of an undergraduate degree is needed for graduate level courses. Assignments, testing and tuition are the same for such non-degree seeking students. Continuing education courses and seminars are open to all with no requirement for a high school diploma or proof of college level course work. Any CDU undergraduate and graduate level course successfully completed can be applied toward a CDU degree program. CDU transcripts would reflect such work and may be sent to other institutions.

HARRISON MIDDLETON UNIVERSITY

• An online, Great Books university emphasizing guided, independent study much as Oxford University does. • HMU is not religiously affiliated and hence is a cooperating college with the UOWC network. • HMU accepts all 48 hours of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program • BA requires 120 credit hours, so 72 in addition to the Angelicum Great Books Program. • Total costs for a bachelor’s degree through the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program, completed at Harrison Middleton University , would be $11,800 (AGBP) + $18,350 (for 72 hours tuition and fees) at HMU = $30,150 for one of seven bachelor’s degrees offered by HMU. This can be reduced to $28,822 utilizing three annual 15% reenrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

Harrison Middleton University has been accredited by the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC). In order to provide additional higher educational opportunities for the students of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program with Catholic Distance University, the two have agreed as follows: Angelicum Great Books Program students who successfully complete (with a “C” grade or better) part or all of said program may transfer all of such hours for full credit toward any of the HMU bachelor’s degrees. Students completing the entire 48 hour Great Books Program will need an additional 72 credits to earn any of the HMU bachelor’s degrees.

Harrison Middleton University presently offers seven bachelor’s degrees toward which the Angelicum Great Books Program credit hours may be applied in full, viz.: the Bachelor of Arts in Humanities; Bachelor of Arts in Education; Bachelor of Imaginative Literature; Bachelor of Philosophy and Religion; Bachelor of Natural Science; Bachelor of Science in Education; Bachelor of Social Science.

Angelicum Great Books Program students transferring to HMU must complete a total of 120 undergraduate credit hours, including the hours they transfer from the Angelicum Great Books Program to HMU. All HMU bachelor’s degrees include 30 credit hours of general education requirements and 90 credit hours of additional coursework (less transferred Angelicum Great Books Program credits). After completing 6 to 12 credit hours of general education courses in each of the four disciplines of: Literature (including oral and written communication), Natural Sciences (including mathematics), Philosophy and Religion, and Social Sciences (resulting in 30 credit hours), students will design, implement, and complete a self-directed core program of study focusing on ideas or authors. The details of such courses are set forth in the HMU catalog online. The Angelicum Great Books Program credit hours will be credited and applied in full toward either the Core Program, the General Education requirement or the Concentration courses, as the Harrison Middleton University administration finds most appropriate.

ST. BEDE’S HALL, OXFORD, UK

• Accepts all 48 hours of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program • St. Bede’s Hall is not a degree granting institution. It is intended to provide American students with the “Oxford experience,” an environment where Oxford’s love of learning is experienced in a Catholic, higher educational setting. • Students may take one to three terms at St. Bede’s hall, Oxford, each term affording 14-16 hours of credit. • Cost is presently $ 14,000 per semester, but a number of bursaries are available reducing this to $7,000 per semester. Exchange rate varies. • Assuming an LSP student, after completing 48 hours of the Angelicum Great Books Program ($11,800) attended St. Bede’s for two terms (30 hours of credit) on a bursary ($14,000), and completed their 42 hours towards a bachelor’s degree at HMU ($10,850) their total bachelor’s degree cost would be $ 36,650. This can be reduced to $35,322 utilizing three annual 15% reenrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program). Absent a bursary, it would be $14,000 higher, or $50,650. • An LSP student who completed 48 hours at Angelicum Great Books Program ($11,800) then comparable courses at St. Bede’s Hall ($7-14,000) rather than at CDU (see Campion, above), and who completed their last year at Campion College Australia ($11,760 tuition + $2,856-to-$9,282), would have paid a total of $33,416-to-$ 46,842 to obtain their BA from Campion College in this three-continent educational experience (not including air fare). This can be reduced to $32,088 utilizing three annual 15% reenrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

The Board of Management of ST. BEDE’S HALL situated at 42, St. Giles in the City of Oxford wishing to support the academic pursuits of the Angelicum Great Books Program so as to extend the opportunities available to those who would otherwise not have access to higher education at Oxford understood as an ecclesial activity, entered into agreement with the Angelicum Great Books Program subject to the following understanding of its own place in the life of the Universal Church.

1. St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford acknowledges that “the duty and right of education belongs in a special way to the Church” 83 CIC 794. We desire to cooperate in the Church’s Mission received from Christ as an innate right [83CIC 794; 748] and assent to the legitimate expectation of “common adherence of the Christian faithful under the leadership of the Magisterium” [83CIC 750]. Conscious of our responsibility to participate in the Church’s work of evangelisation as a fundamental duty [83 CIC 781], St. Bede’s Hall, subject to the vigilance of the Church’s pastors [83 CIC 810 §2] will by its own academic endeavours develop in cooperation and readiness with the Church’s pastors so as to assist the Church in creating a culture where “the Christian outlook should acquire a public, stable and universal influence in the whole process of the promotion of higher culture” [Sapientia Christiana 4].

2. St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford cooperates in the Church’s mission in its own areas of academic expertise and so assists in the building up of the Body of Christ in fidelity to the Church’s teaching and in recognition of the unique academic contribution and association of the Catholic Church in Oxford as a place of academic excellence since the 13th Century. St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford is increasingly aware of the importance of continuing this apostolate CIC cc. 208, 225 §2; 807. This academic institution known as St. Bede’s Hall, has as its intended purpose to assist the members of its academic community to live their vocation as academics and to fulfil their duty and right “to work so that the divine message of salvation more and more reaches all people” cc. 210-211; 229 §2.

3. This Agreement entered into by St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford with the Angelicum Great Books Program is understood to have as its purpose the placing of knowledge, competence and academic achievements at the service of the Church in fidelity to the Church’s teaching on faith and morals and at the same time being attentive to the common advantage and the dignity of persons CIC c. 212 §3.

4. St. Bede’s Hall, founded as an independent Catholic college and being an Association of the Christian Faithful is a Juridic body governed according to its own proper statutes and constitution for the common pursuit of the Church’s mission in education CIC c. 215. Therefore in entering into an Agreement of Articulation with the Angelicum Great Books Program, St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford seeks to be faithful at all times to the mind of the Church and the need for dialogue between Faith and Science CIC c. 809. St. Bede’s Hall, erected as a Catholic institution CIC cc. 216; 808; 810 §1.

5. Furthermore, in order to ensure greater stability for this new Agreement of Articulation between St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford and the Angelicum Great Books Program both parties to this agreement undertake to observe those provisions contained in CIC c. 218 and ensure that those required to obtain a mandatum so as to be competent to teach the sacred sciences CIC c. 229 §3; 812; 814 and to remain within the appointed position that requires such a mandatum.

6. Both institutions of higher (tertiary) learning have been recommended in the Newman Guide to Choosing a Catholic College. St. Bede’s Hall is an Independent Catholic college in Oxford, England. St. Bede’s students are members of the Oxford Union.

7. The educational institutions parties hereto enter into this Articulation Agreement with the intent to provide students with the opportunity to pursue higher education objectives through the combined educational opportunities of St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford and the Angelicum GBP. The goal of this, as of most Articulation Agreements, is to remove the uncertainties of varying credit acceptance and transfer policies between programs and institutions by means of agreed credit acceptance policies in specific circumstances between the signatory institutions and programs. Pursuant to that goal the parties hereto agree that Angelicum Great Books Program students upon the successful completion of the 4-year college-level Great Books Program will be deemed eligible without further requirements or prerequisites to attend St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford and there to attend the courses offered at St. Bede’s Hall.

8. Courses successfully completed at St. Bene’s Hall shall be entered upon an official transcript (course completion record) with grades, of St. Bede’s Hall which will be provided to the Angelicum Great Books Program and such other colleges and universities as may be requested by the student. St. Bede’s Provost will recommend that students receive 14-16 U.S. semester credits for the completion of 14-18 Oxford tutorials within a thirteen-week period of residence each term. For its part the Angelicum Great Books Program agrees to accept for inclusion on its official transcripts for its students courses at St. Bede’s Hall which they successfully complete (i.e., with a passing grade).

9. St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford and the Angelicum Great Books Program agree that students who successfully complete (with a “C” grade or better) part or all of the Angelicum Great Books Program shall receive full credit for such hours toward St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford bachelor’s degrees, if and when St. Bede’s Hall is able to offer bachelor’s or other degrees. Likewise, the Angelicum Great Books Program agrees to accept course work successfully completed at St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford for full credit for such hours toward Angelicum bachelor’s degrees, if and when Angelicum GBP is able to offer bachelor’s or other degrees.

10. St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford and the Angelicum Great Books Program are both dedicated to provide a liberal arts education by means of academic programs based on liberal or generalist studies. Indeed, the goal of both programs is precisely to equip students with a broad, Catholic, liberal education as a foundation for subsequent academic study. Sharing mutual educational goals, the parties agree to cooperate in assisting each other to obtain authorization to issue degrees, to the extent reasonably possible, helpful and consistent with their decrees of establishment, proper constitutions and statutes.

11. It is the hope of the parties hereto that Angelicum Great Books Program students will hereby be afforded an opportunity to broaden their experience and share in the unique educational environment of Oxford by joining for a time and becoming an integral part of the academic community at St. Bede’s Hall, Oxford.

BENEDICTINE COLLEGE

• Accepts a minimum of 24 hours of the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program for full credit at Benedictine College, and has formally agreed to work towards accepting all 48 hours. • The 30 different bachelor’s degrees offered by BC generally require 128 credit hours (a few a little more). • BC annual costs are: $ 20,475 tution + $270 in fees + $3,250 board + $3,755-$5,500 room, for a total of from $27,750-to-$29,495 per year, absent any financial aid. That totals to $111,000-to-$117,980 for a bachelor’s degree. • Total costs for a bachelor’s degree through the LSP/Angelicum Great Books Program, completed at BC, would be $11,800 (AGBP) + 3 years at BC (of from $27,750-to-$29,495 per year) = $83,250-to-$88,485, for a total of $95,050-to- $100,285, a savings via LSP of from $15,950-to-$17,695. This can be reduced to $93,722 utilizing three annual 15% re-enrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

• If BC eventually accepts all 48 hours of the LSP/ABG Program, BC costs would be reduced by a total of approximately $30-35,000 to approx. $79-83,000 for a bachelor’s degree, absent any financial aid. This can be reduced $ 1,327 utilizing three annual 15% re-enrollment discounts with the Angelicum Great Books Program).

Benedictine College has been accredited by the North Central Association. The educational institutions parties hereto enter into agreement with the intent to provide students with the opportunity to pursue higher education objectives through the combined educational opportunities of BC and the AGBP. The goal of this, as of most Articulation Agreements, is to remove the uncertainties of varying credit acceptance and transfer policies between programs and institutions by means of agreed credit acceptance policies in specific circumstances between the signatory institutions and programs. This affords students the assurance and certainty that if they successfully complete specified college-level courses at one institution or program such academic work will be accepted at the other.

Benedictine College and the Angelicum Great Books Program are both dedicated to provide a liberal arts education by means of academic programs based on a core of liberal or generalist studies. BC presently requires twenty-eight hours (28) minimum of general education credits, broken out into Core (10 hours), Foundations (15 hours), and Perspectives (3 hours). Benedictine College majors have at least 24 hours of electives. The goal of both programs is precisely to equip students with a broad, liberal education as a foundation for subsequent specialization in various major areas.

To that end Benedictine College and the Angelicum Great Books Program agree that students who successfully complete (with a “C” grade or better), part or all of the Angelicum Great Books Program, as set forth on the student’s official Angelicum Great Books Program transcript, shall receive full credit for a minimum of 24 such hours toward Benedictine College bachelor’s degrees, or other BC degree programs, specifically as follows:

6 hours of history credit (i.e., 3 hours of World civilization and 3 hours of American history) fulfilling the BC “historical perspective” requirement; 6 hours of literature (i.e., 3 credits as Introduction to Literature and 3 credits as World Literature) fulfilling the BC “aesthetic experience” requirement; 3 hours of English composition, fulfilling the English composition core requirement; 9 hours of elective credit (this will probably be specifically assigned as 3 hours each in theology, philosophy and theatre, counting toward 3 hours of the BC “faith” and 3 hours of the BC “philosophical inquiry” requirements, however the specific allocation of these 9 elective credits will be decided upon later and noted in a future addendum to this agreement, but it is agreed here that 9 hours of credit as electives will be accepted, regardless of how they are eventually specifically allocated). This totals to 24 hours of agreed credit. The parties agreed to work towards acceptance of all of the 48 hours of Angelicum, Great Books Program credits heretofore recommended by ACE, for full credit at BC.

AGBP students that complete less than AGBP 24 hours of credit will be given full credit for such hours of the AGBP as they do successfully complete, provided they possess an overall grade point average of 2.0 in all such college-level work. In these cases, BC, in consultation with such student(s), will allocate such hours from among those hours set forth in the preceding paragraph, in a manner most suitable for the student’s study plan.

Most bachelor’s degrees at BC require the completion of 128 hours of credit – a few require more. Students completing 24 hours of the Angelicum Great Books Program will need an additional one hundred and four (104) credits to earn bachelor’s degrees in the 128 hour bachelor’s programs at BC, plus the amount of credits over 128 in those majors that require more than 128. Most BC majors require approximately 40 credit hours in the major area of concentration. AGBP students shall be required to complete all such required major hours for a bachelor’s degree in any such area of concentration. Given that AGBP students completing the entire AGBP before matriculating at BC would require at least one hundred and four (104) hours for any bachelor’s degree awarded by BC, completing the 40 hours of major concentration would require no additional hours over and above the 128 or so normally required for BC bachelor’s degrees.

AGBP students who have completed college-level credits in addition to the Angelicum Great Books Program prior to matriculating at BC, may submit official transcripts for such additional work to be evaluated by the BC Registrar to determine the number of additional hours that are comparable to courses offered at BC which will be accepted for credit at BC. No AGBP student will be allowed to begin the registration process until the official AGBP transcripts are received. At a minimum, the two final semesters (30 credit hours) must be completed at Benedictine College.

It is the hope of the parties hereto that Angelicum Great Books Program students will hereby be afforded a seamless opportunity to complete their distance/online learning and generalist/liberal study of the Great Books of Western civilization as presented in the AGBP, and then join and become an integral part of the academic community at Benedictine College, for a minimum of two years on campus (initially three+ years per this agreement), to complete their studies and specialization into one of the 39 majors offered at Benedictine College culminating in bachelor’s degrees.

Students who begin the Angelicum Great Books Program during the effectiveness of this Articulation Agreement, shall be entitled to have the AGBP courses they have successfully completed, as well as those they complete after the termination of this agreement, accepted at Benedictine College on the same terms, as set forth above.